Education is all conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual strength of religious, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and skills needed him and society. Education Process Standards can be interpreted as a technical form of a reference or criteria established in a planned or designed in the implementation of learning.
Regulation for the education process standards contained in the Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 41/2007 about Standard of Process for Primary and Secondary Education, and Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No. 49/ 2014 about National Standard of Higher Education. Process standards are national standards relating to the implementation of learning in one unit of education to achieve competency standards.
Business processes in education can be seen in the picture below:
- New Students Admission,
Admissions new students must fulfill the principles of fair and non-discriminatory with no gender discrimination, religion, ethnicity, race, social status, and level of economic ability of prospective students as well as taking into account the potential candidate. New admission stage are:
- Promotion, planning to introduce the school to the community with forming the committee, determine the potential elements of the school, media selection, implementation, and evaluation of promotion.
- Apply for admission
- Submit the transcripts and other documents.
- Paying for school/college
- Make placement tests, each school will determine the assessment criteria in the selection of new admissions for example the results of tests, grades, achievements, capacity, etc.
- Orientation, to introduce the school to the community with forming the committee, forming groups of students, orientation event format selection, implementation, and evaluation of orientation. In this process new students are expected to know regulations of the school, school physical environment and social environment.
- Register for classes
This New admissions is an activity that is carried out first in an educational institution, therefore in the management of new students admission this must be done in such a way (planning and periodic evaluation) so that teaching learning activities can already started in the first days new academic year.
- Curriculum Development,
Curriculum development established by considering the stage of development of learners and their compatibility with the environment, the needs of national development, the development of science and technology, according to the type and level of education of each unit.
Principles of curriculum development:
- Curriculum development conducted by referring to national standard of education to achieve national education goals.
- The curriculum at all levels and types of education developed in accordance with the principle of diversification of educational units, the potential of the region, and students.
- Development of diversified curriculum is intended to allow the adjustment of educational programs in the educational unit with conditions and peculiarities of the potential in the region
- Basic framework and structure of primary and secondary education curriculum established by the Government.
- Primary and secondary education curriculum is developed according to their relevance to the education unit under the coordination and supervision of education department
Curriculum as educational plan is establish by government in Indonesia has been performed by Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional as educational ministry as already stated in Undang-Undang No. 20/2003 about National Education System and Peraturan Pemerintah No. 32/2013 about National Education Standard.
- Syllabus Planning is a lesson plan on a group of subjects with a particular theme. The syllabus includes the standard of competence, basic competence, learning materials, indicators, assessment, allocation of time and source of learning. In selecting content for inclusion, the organizations should bear the following principles in mind:
- It should be relevant to the outcomes of the curriculum. An effective curriculum is purposive, clearly focused on the planned learning outcomes. The inclusion of irrelevant topics, however interesting in themselves, acts as a distraction and may confuse students.
- It should be appropriate to the level of the programme or unit. An effective curriculum is progressive, leading students onward and building on what has gone before. Material which is too basic or too advanced for their current stage makes students either bored or baffled, and erodes their motivation to learn.
- It should be continuity means that each program should be compiled in the syllabus learning independent from each other in the form of personal competence and learners.
- It should be up to date and, if possible, should reflect current research. In some disciplines it is difficult to achieve the latter until students reach postgraduate level, but in many it is possible for even first year undergraduates to be made aware of current research topics.
- Plan and develop learning and assessment opportunities
- Monitor student progress
- Assess and measure student achievement against intended learning at each stage
- Report student progress and achievement during, and at the end of, a stage.
- Process Plan Learning or Semester Lesson Plan
Based on the Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No. 49/2014 about the National Standards for Higher Education June 9, 2014, Semester Lesson Plan components consist of:
- Course name and code, the semester, credits, name of lecturers;
- Learning outcomes of graduates who imposed on the course;
- Final ability of the planned each phase of learning to meet the learning outcomes of graduates;
- Study materials associated with ability to be achieved;
- Learning methods;
- The availability time to achieve capabilities at each stage of learning;
- The student learning experience are realized in the job description should be done by the student for one semester;
- Criteria, indicators, and weight rating; and
- List of references used.
- Competency Standards Educators
Teaching is a dynamic profession and, as new knowledge about teaching and learning emerges; new types of expertise are required by educators. The organization shall ensure that their entire educators have any required competence and must keep abreast of this knowledge base and use it to continually refine their conceptual and pedagogical skills.
Based on Undang-Undang No. 14/2005 about Teachers and Lecturers states that:
The competence of teachers includes pedagogical competence, personal competence, social competence, and professional competence acquired through professional education
- Pedagogic competence is the ability of understanding of learners, design and implementation of learning, evaluation of learning outcomes, and the development of learners to actualize different potentials
- Personality is the availability of personal competence that reflect the personality of a solid, stable, mature, wise and authoritative, become role models for students, and noble
- Professional competence is mastery learning materials widely and deeply, which includes mastery of the subjects in the school curriculum and scientific substance overshadow learning materials, and mastery of the structure and science methodology.
- Social competence is the teacher’s ability to communicate and interact effectively with students, staff, parents/guardians of students, and society.
- Learning, is a process that contains a series of actions of teachers and students on the basis of reciprocal relationships that take place in an educational situation to achieve a certain goal. Interaction or reciprocal relationship between teacher and student that is the main condition for the continuity of the learning process. Interaction in the teaching and learning events have a wider sense, not just the relationship between teachers and students, but in the form of educational interaction. In this case not only the delivery of messages with the subject matter, but the cultivation of attitudes and values on students who are currently studying.
- Every learning subject shall describe of its amendable competency
- Every subject shall be provided with matrix competency
- To provide correlation matrix of every subjects
The selection of models and methods of learning involves learning strategies. Learning strategy is the planning and appropriate action and careful about the learning activities that the basic competencies and learning indicators can be achieved. Learning is an effort to create a climate and services on the ability, potential, interests, talents, and needs of diverse learners so that optimal interaction between teachers and students and between students and students. Educators may choose one model of learning that are considered in accordance with the learning material or may incorporate some learning models.
Based on the government regulation, the standard of process has been stipulated on Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 41/2007 for Primary and Secondary Education.
- Evaluation & Test:
Educational assessment is the process of collecting and processing information to measure the achievement of student learning outcomes include: authentic assessment, self-assessment, portfolio-based assessment, quizzes, daily tests, UTS, UAS, competency level, school exam and the national exam
- Assessment policies, student learning outcomes assessment is based on the following principles ie objective, integrated, economical, transparency, accountable, and educational
- Frameworks and methods;
- The methods and assessment mechanism selected should be appropriate to the learning objectives that have been defined,
- The methods and mechanisms that have been cultivated assessment able to give feedback to the student to determine the extent of their abilities,
- It should be using more than one method to measure an objective assessment of learning
- Utilization of assessment results, identification of students failure, look for the root causes of these weaknesses, then perform remedial, counseling, etc.
- Monitoring and Evaluation of Process:
Monitoring the learning process applied to the planning, implementation, and assessment of learning outcomes by means of focus group discussions, observation, recording, recording, interviews, and documentation.
Evaluation Element: Standard Review Checklist (demographic, schedule, lessons plan)
Evaluation of the learning process is conducted to determine the overall quality of learning; the learning process includes planning phase, the implementation of the process of learning, and assessment of learning outcomes.
Evaluation of the learning process is organized by:
- Compare the learning process undertaken by teachers standard process,
- Identify the performance of teachers in the learning process according to the competency of teachers.
- Equity and effectiveness of teaching
- Using evidence to support effective learning and to innovate;
- Making effective learning equitable
Evaluation system of learning activities result shall be changed. Evaluation system of competency based curriculum shall be continual and comprehensive evaluation. These are including of the following aspects:
- Evaluation of student’s learning result
- Evaluation of learning process
- Evaluation of competency of lecture or teachers
- Evaluation of relevance of curriculum
- Evaluation of supporting process, infrastructure and facilities
- Evaluation of program study (Accreditation)
Based on the government regulation, the standard of assessment/evaluation has been stipulated on Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 20/2007 for primary and secondary education.
- Competency Standards Graduates:
Based on Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 23/2006 about Standar Kompetensi Lulusan for Primary and Secondary Education explained:
- Attitude, have the correct behavior, and culture as a result of the internalization and the actualization of values and norms are reflected in the spiritual and social life through the process of learning, work experience students, research or community service related to learning.
- Knowledge, the mastery of methods, concepts and theory, philosophy of science particular systematically obtained with the learning process, students work experience, research and or community service related to learning.
- General skills, general job skills that must be owned by every graduate in order to ensure equality of capabilities targeted graduate programs and types of education.
- Special skills, abilities special work that must be owned by each graduate according to the scientific field of study programs.
- Graduation/Alumnus, release or inauguration activities of students who have finished completing the study period that realized in the form of ceremony marked a pigtail displacement.
Important to know alumnus activities after graduating from college, the transition from education to the labor market, the employment situation, the acquisition of competence, and competence in the use of labor.
Alumnus database can be useful for:
- Interest accreditation, ranking system, the evaluation of the quality (internal and external). Put in the areas of curriculum, learning processes, infrastructure, and services and an increase in HR
- Research: topics of educational development, analysis of the fit between work and studies, other social issues, such as gender issues, working condition, basic salary, etc.
- Facilites and Infrastructure Management, are all necessary infrastructure and facilities in the learning process in achievement of educational goals. Infrastructure is the primary support of a process education for the purpose of education achieved.
- Building infrastructure. Includes land and buildings for educator room, offices space, class rooms, seminar room, meeting room, laboratory space, studio space, library, computer room, garden experiment, workshop, public facilities and welfare, such as hospitals, central student services, sport and art facilities and student dormitory.
- Public infrastructure such as water, sanitation, drainage, electricity, telecommunication networks, transportation, parking and garden.
- Learning Facility, including the facilities to implement the learning process as the completeness in the class room. i.e. whiteboard, OHP, LCD, microphone and etc.; laboratory equipment, according to the type of each laboratory course.
- Support learning resources consisting of text books, journals, magazines, information sheets, internet, intranet, CD-ROOM and satellite imagery. Learning resources should be selected, sorted and adapted to the purpose of learning.
The organization shall ensure that their management of educational facilities is the overall process of planning, procurement, utilization, maintenance, and controls used to support education for the achievement of educational goals can be run smoothly, orderly, effective and efficient.
Based on the government regulation, the standard for infrastructure has been stipulated on Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 24/2007 and Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 33/2008 for Primary and Secondary Education.
- Student must feel like they belong, are challenged, are cared for.
- Teacher must feel supported and that they are working in a collaboration environment. Teacher has high expectation for student and believes all can learn.
- Parents must feel welcome at school, and know what they can do to support their child’s learning, effective home-schooling communications.
- Student, teacher, parents questioner
- Demographic data that indicated how students and teachers are treated.
Guarantee the freedom of academic, communication, coordination, effective interaction, and implement of good practice.
- Student and teacher questioner.
- Leadership structure that help everyone implement the vision.
- Evaluation tools and strategies.
- Information System, facilitating students to obtain information. Additionally, users can submit comments and suggestions to the unit/certain parties constructively in order to improve services in the future.
This information system make each student will have an account like email and password, they will fill Kartu Rencana Studi (KRS), to see Kartu Hasil Studi (KHS), transcripts, scholarships information, lectures material, libraries, journal, job opportunities, etc.
- System of data transfer, data access, and disaster recovery system.
- Decision Support System
- Internet capacity
- Extracurricular, are those that fall outside the realm of the normalcurriculum of school or university education. Extracurricular activities intended for students to develop personality, talents, and abilities in various fields outside of academic ability.
Extracurricular activities coordinated a focused and integrated with other activities in the school, in order to support the achievement of the curriculum goals.
Extracurricular as operational tools (supplements and complements) curriculum has been performed by Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan No. 81A/2013 about Curriculum Guidelines for Extracurricular Implementation.
- Research and Community Service, a process that exists only in higher education as stated in Tridharma higher education.
Research is the activity carried out according to the rules and methods systematically to obtain scientific information, data, and information related to the understanding and / or testing of branches of science and technology.
- Disseminate the results of research, science and at the same time preserving equip students with knowledge.
- Provide students with the experience and ability basic research, and foster a culture of research in students through thesis / final project / scientific papers and seminars.
- Gave rise to new ideas became materials research
Community Services is the activity academicians that utilizing science and technology to advance social welfare and educating the nation.
- Preparing students to become a members of the community that have the academic ability and professionals that can implement, develop and enrich the science, technology and the arts.
- Develop and disseminate science, technology and the art and trying to use to improve people’s lives and enrich the national culture
Based on the government regulation, Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 49/2014 the standard consider both in Standard of Research and Community Service:
- Standard of Results
- Standard of Content
- Standard of Process
- Standard of Standard of Management,
- Standard of Implementer
- Standard of Facilities and Infrastructures
- Standards of Funding and Financing